As the new translations, which will include virtually all of the surviving Hellenistic astrological texts, will take several years for the entire series to be published, we are preparing a selection of key texts covering the entire system of Hellenistic natal astrology. You can still see a record of what we accomplished in the archives.
We do still have some Medieval translations available. These will not be reprinted in their present form, or revised any time soon, so buy them while they last. They are also where we first began to see the value of Hellenistic astrological concepts for providing access points to some of the thornier issues connected with this problem. All rights reserved. Controvery over the Yavanajataka There is an ongoing debate in India about the 'Astrology of the Greeks', both its origin and time of writing.
Rather than being written in the time of Alexander the Great as some have suggested, scholars have concluded it was written in the 2nd or 3rd century AD.
Agastya Rishi has suggested Yavanajataka was not a Greek but a Yavana work. In this regard, he notes that the Yavana's used Navamsa 9th house divisional charts while contemporary Hellenistic astrologers like Vettius Valens, Firmicus Maternus and Theodorus of Sidon did not. Some Indian scholars have concluded that the Greeks didn't have astrology at the time of Alexander, but that astrology was introduced to Greece after BC by a certain Berrossus, more than 50 years after the death of Alexander. In other words, there is considerable controversy surrounding the conclusions that may be drawn from the existence of this book, the Astrology of the Greeks.
Origins of Horoscopic Astrology Horoscopic astrology is a form of astrology which uses a graphical representation of the Sun, Moon and planets with reference to the twelve signs of the zodiac at any given moment in time. A critical ingredient of horoscopic astrology is the use of twelve houses, beginning with the ascendant, the sign that rises over the Eastern horizon at any given moment of time. The word for the ascendant in Greek is horoskopos. Over time, horoscopic astrology has come to denote the study of astrology in terms of a chart as a whole.
The debate whether this most developed form of astrology originated in the Hellenic or Vedic civilization is examined more closely here. Horoscopic formats In the respected work Greek Horoscopes, by Neugebauer and van Hoesen, three basic horoscopic formats are shown. Primacy of the ascendant In Holden's History of Horoscopic Astrology there is the following reproduction from the translation by Pingree of the Astrology of the Greeks.
While not exactly shaped like a Vedic chart it is of considerable importance that the ascendant is placed at the top of the diagram, which is the ancient custom of Vedic astrology. It is known that later practitioners of Greek and Roman astrology moved the ascendant to the left side of the chart, the horoskops.
This was linked to the increased focus of astrologers on the Sun and its physical appearance over the horizon in the morning. This emphasis on the Sun was also related to the seasons, which the solar cycle governs. In effect, this was part of a gradual transformation of astrology, which over time became modern Western astrology.
At the same time, it is likely that this transformation was a critical evolutionary mistake in the practice of astrology in the West. Vedic astrology In India, the birth chart is known with its sanskrit name as a Kundli or Rasi chart, while the rising sign is called the Lagna.
The astrology of India is alternately called Indian astrology, Hindu astrology or Vedic astrology. The term Indian reflects the geographic location of the astrology. The term Hindu represents the modern cultural expression of the astrology. Meanwhile, Vedic reflects the ancient tantric philosophy of this type of astrology.
In the Vedas, astrology was considered the sixth limb of enlightenment knowledge. The cosmology of the Vedas is arguably the most important ingredient of astrology, including the 'law of karma'. In fact, the planets, grahas , represent the accumulated karma of the soul, to be expressed in the life, but giving scope for the expression of our 'free will'. Hence, the term Vedic astrology is preferred.
Vedic astrology is still practiced today, much like it was many thousands of years ago. It is the modern system of horoscopic astrology closest to that practiced in the Hellenic world. Signs, houses and planets Horoscopic astrology is based on signs, houses and planets and their meaning is well established. The sanskrit names of the signs and planets are shown here. The mythology of Rahu and Ketu streteches back into antiquity, related to the knowledge of the ancient Rishis sages of the eclipses.
Houses and their meaning What gave birth to horoscopic astrology as we know it is the concept of houses. The logic of the twelve houses is tied to the twelve signs. The houses show the areas of life where the influences of the planets and signs manifest. The rising sign is considered to be the first and most important house as it represents the person.
The others houses, which represent key areas of the life, are counted from the sign falling in the first house. The twelve houses have been identified to represent the following meaning in the life of the individual. Systems' Approach The logic of house rulerships by the planets is also unique for each ascendant and this is the essence of the Systems' Approach SA to vedic astrology. The planet 'ruling' a Moolatrikona MT sign becomes a functional ruler of the house that the MT sign falls into.
In addition to its general nature , the planet carries with it, more importantly, a functional nature of the particular house its MT sign falls in. The other sign a planet may 'own' excluding the Sun and Moon and the house it falls in becomes less important for the overall horoscopic interpretation. That said, whatever house a planet resides in, its functional and general indications get expressed in that area of the life. The dynamic changes for each ascendant. Those with the sign Aries rising are expected to approach life differently than those with say the sign Virgo rising.
Mars becomes 1st lord for Aries while Mercury becomes 1st lord for Virgo. By comparison Mars becomes 6th lord for Scorpio ascendants and Mercury becomes 4th lord for Gemini's and this means the planets take on a different functional meaning for these ascendants. There are many more considerations for a horoscopic reading based on SA vedic astrology, but this gives some sense of the logic.
Whole sign house system Importantly, in the original horoscopic astrology the houses are considered to be equivalent to one whole sign. While the whole sign house system appeared in Greece, later developments in Western astrology changed this original scheme. A singular problem A singular problem in the history of astrology is the fact that many of its students and practitioners have shown a tendency for insufficient wherewithal to master the basic elements of astrology. Alternatively, they may have been working with an ineffective method or system of astrology.
In any event, due to their failiure to achieve success in interpreting horoscopes or making accurate predictions, the disaffected astrologers have tended to seek new ideas or techniques, with many such efforts of doubtful value.
Over time this has led to the introduction of a confusing array of ideas and techniques in astrology, which have obscured the essence of astrology as a language of the stellar influences. In general, while Vedic astrology has also been saddled with this tendency, an even greater tendency for this has been seen in Western astrology. After science and the scienctific method emerged in the Hellenistic age, with advances in astronomical knowledge, there arose a tendency to incorporate new astronomical insights into astrological practices, which reduced the interpretative and predictive accuracy.
Evolutionary wrong turn There are several key mistakes that can be linked to the practice of astrology in the Roman Empire, its disappearance during the dark ages and the rediscovery of astrology in the West in the early middle ages. A key mistake was that medieval astrologers took to heart a recommendation in the grossly overrated astrology text Tetrabiblos , by Ptolemy. The sidereal zodiac is therefore fixed in real sense.
senjouin-renshu.com/wp-content/69/3147-descargar-whatsapp-espiar.php This mistake led to the evolution of the 'tropical' or moving zodiac in the West and the associated drift of the signs away from their original and visible constellational locations, such that the signs are now almost a whole sign away from their visible counterparts. Western astrology also developed an overemphasis on the role of the Sun in astrology, with the Sun sign becomnig the predominant key to a reading, rather than the ascendant as in the original horoscopic astrology.
Stone and Theodore A. The first chapter exhorts the would-be astrological magician to learn the classical Pythagorean sciences before approaching magic: arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. There are no discussion topics on this book yet. Another example of a complicated custody battle can be seen in the chart of Mia Farrow. The bedrock of the traditional approach is to use the natal horoscope in conjunction with the Solar Return, and Louis does this throughout the book. It is the Greek letters omega and rho superimposed over each Sesquisquare A hard aspect, and although minor in natal June 1, June 6, beyondtheheaven Misc Tags: Astrology.
Moreover, in Western astrology houses became to be considered as independent of the signs, due to astronomical innovations or errors, such that they were allowed to overlap signs and become unequal. Thus, to compound the zodiac problem, the whole sign house system fell out of the astrological practice of the West. In the modern age, Western astrology has been further burdened by the tendency of its practitioners to adopt newly discovered invisible planets, often tiny outlying bodies in the solar system, and graft on to them ancient Greek mythological meanings as possible influences, with little evidence aside from their assertions of their influences.
While the planets were given names of Roman gods, there is scant evidence that the astrology of Hellenic age was driven by Greek mythological meanings. That said, in renaming the planets and signs, and altering the horoscope format, a truly unique Greek astrology was born. No matter, the result of all these wrong turns is that Western astrologers have mostly been left with the study of planetary influences, stripped of the accurate sign and house meanings.
While this is a sad state of affairs for those beholden to this form of astrology, hopefully this article will help some to rediscover the roots of the more comprehensive horoscopic astrology of which the astrology of the Vedas is still a living branch. Visible astrology of the Vedas The practitioners of Vedic astrology have never lost view of the visible planets, the original sidereal zodiac or the whole sign house system.
As a result, Vedic astrology has been spared the greater confusions of Western astrology. In the ancient Bhagvad Gita of the Upanishads there is the following verse: " The splendor of the sun, which dissipates the darkness of this whole world, comes from Me.
And the splendor of the moon and the splendor of fire are also from Me " Chapter 15, Verse This and many other statements about eclipses, the other planets and prophecy demonstrate the complete integration of astrology with the Vedic concept of the divine. In sum, - an examination of the Babyloninan, Egyptian, Greek, Roman and Arabic literal record is not giving a comprehensive picture - the historical setting has to be examined - knowledge of ancient Indian texts in Sanskrit is still incomplete - oral transmission intra-familia was likely the way that this knowledge was propagated in India in ancient times - the spread to the West of horoscopic astrology after the invasion by Alexander may have been through Indian court-astrologers - the trantric civilization opened up human beings to deeper knowledge of a living idealism , through meditation and true assessment.
Importantly, astrology was perceived as an integral part of the religious traditions. The conflict between astrology and the Christian religion as well as the reign of materialism in the modern age are likely contributing factors. Conclusion While there is literary evidence of works of Greek astrologers in the late Hellenic age, including the transportation of one such book to India in Roman times, this is far from sufficient proof of the origins of horoscopic astrology. Given the caste system, Indian astrologers likely passed down their astrology knowledge intra-familia , avoiding to disseminate it in book form.